Round 5 of Lok Sabha elections 2024: Star contestants, economy of constituencies

A quick look into the Lok Sabha seats that are going to vote in the fifth round of the ongoing general election, the most prominent candidates in the fray in this round and how their economies are doing

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Surajit Dasgupta
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5th phase of Lok Sabha elections 2024 data

5th phase of Lok Sabha elections, 2024: Star contestants, economy of constituencies

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The fifth phase of the Lok Sabha elections, 2024, will be held on 20 May, Monday, when citizens in a total of 49 polling centres across eight states and union territories will exercise their franchise. As many as 695 candidates are in the fray, the most prominent of them being...

•    Rahul Gandhi (INC, Rae Bareli, UP)

•    Smriti Irani (BJP, Amethi, UP)

•    Rajnath Singh (BJP, Lucknow, UP)

•    Karan Bhushan Singh (BJP, Kaiserganj, UP), son of Brij Bhushan, prime ‘me too’ accused in the Wrestling Federation of India

•    Rohini Acharya (RJD, Saran, Bihar), daughter of Lalu Prasad Yadav

•    Chirag Paswan (LJP, Hajipur, Bihar)

•    Piyush Goyal (BJP, Mumbai North)

•    Arvind Sawant (Shiv Sena UBT, Mumbai South, Maharashtra)

•    Ujjwal Nikam (BJP, Mumbai North-Central), the replacement of Poonam Mahajan, the lawyer who was the special public prosecutor in the Mumbai terror attack and 1993 serial blasts cases

•    Omar Abdullah (NC, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir)

Following are the economic highlights of these constituencies.

Lok Sabha constituencies voting in the 5th round

1. Bihar (state)

o    Hajipur

o    Madhubani

o    Muzaffarpur

o    Saran

o    Sitamarhi

    Hajipur: Hajipur's economy is largely service-oriented, with agriculture and industry also contributing. As of 2011, the economy comprised 55% services, 9% industry, and 35% agriculture. The city's industrial sector includes pharmaceutical and plastic manufacturing, food processing, and poultry feed. The service sector includes construction, business and hospitality, and communal management.

    Madhubani: The local economy is primarily based on agriculture. The main crops grown in the district are paddy, wheat, maize, moong, mustard lentils, potatoes, and vegetables. The district is also a major producer of rice and Makhana. Other economic activities are Cattle rearing, Rice mills, Timber factories, Mithila paintings, Sikki mouni handicrafts and weaving.

    Muzaffarpur: The local economy is primarily based on agriculture, with the industrial and service sectors also playing a role. In 2021, the district's GDP was $ 5 billion, which is 4.7% of Bihar’s SDP, and its per capita income was $ 2,507.

    Saran: Agriculture is the main activity of Saran, its chief farm produce being paddy, wheat, sugarcane, potato and maize. The soil of the district is alluvial. The diara areas in the beds of the three rivers are subjected to periodic inundation, hence are highly fertile. No mineral of economic value is found in the district. The economy of Saran has seen sustained growth. The sugar factories in the region contribute the most to the industrial scenario of Saran.

    Sitamarhi: Agriculture serves as the primary occupation in the surrounding area, cultivating a variety of crops such as rice, wheat, bajra (pearl millet), pulses (legumes), corn (maize), sugarcane, and oilseeds. The local industries contribute to the economy by producing cotton textiles, tanned leather, milled rice, hydrogenated vegetable oil, wood carvings, and metalware. As a result of the local administration’s efforts for agricultural and water resource development, Sitamarhi was granted five projects in 2022, with an estimated cost of Rs 302.69 lakh. These projects include the establishment of a mushroom spawn production unit and a custom hiring centre for farm machinery to enhance agricultural mechanization. Sitamarhi, with an approximate population of 80,000 people, has made significant strides in improving the pupil-teacher ratio in elementary schools, increasing it from 16% to 35% over the past six years.

2. Jharkhand (state)

o    Hazaribagh

o    Kodarma

o    Chotra

    Hazaribagh: The region's economy is primarily based on forest products, byproducts, and various other goods. Agriculture serves as the primary source of income, with an average per capita income of Rs. 22,489. In addition to agriculture, the district's economy thrives on extensive coal and mica reserves, limestone mining for infrastructure purposes, as well as iron and steel, glass, and chemical industries. The district boasts a forest cover spanning approximately 2566 sq km, featuring bamboo, kendu leaves, mahua, fruits, and lac. Hunting for food is a common practice among the locals. Trading activities encompass paddy thrashing, dona pattal making, bamboo basket crafting, and the sale of mahua flowers.

    Kodarma: The economy here is primarily dependent on agriculture and industry. The district's main source of income is agriculture, with more than half of the population involved in agricultural activities. The main agricultural products include maize, pulses, radish, tomato, potato, wheat, mustard and linseed. The district's per capita income is Rs. 20,964.

    Chotra: Its economy is based on both agriculture and industry. The district's economy is primarily agrarian, with over 75% of workers employed in agriculture. The main agricultural products in the district are wheat, rice, maize, and pulses. The district's forests, which cover about 60% of its total geographical area, are also an important natural resource. The forests provide raw materials for industries like furniture, paper and matchboxes, and also protect the soil from erosion and moderate rain and floods.

3. Maharashtra (state)

o    Bhiwandi

o    Dindori

o    Kalyan

o    Mumbai North-Central

o    Mumbai North-East

o    Mumbai North-West

o    Mumbai South

o    Mumbai South-Central

o    Mumbai North

o    Nashik

o    Palghar

o    Thane

o    Dhule

    Bhiwandi: Bhiwandi is known for its high number of power looms and handlooms, but the textile sector has been declining since 2012 due to new taxes and difficulties in connecting with buyers. However, the city has diversified to include industries and logistics, making it one of Asia's largest warehousing hubs. It is also a crucial part of Mumbai's logistics network and has branches of prominent e-commerce companies. Bhiwandi's economy is based on textiles, groceries, and services, but small hotels faced challenges during the pandemic. The city has a large water treatment plant and a central railway station, and the Bhiwandi Metro Project is set to be completed in 2025.

    Nashik, including Dindori: The district has an average Kharip crop area of 6,63,200 hectares and an average Rabbi crop area of 1,36,500 hectares. The sown area covers 658,763 hectares (99%), while forest land spans 340,000 hectares (21.75%). The uncultivable area is 23,000 hectares (1.48%). Nashik plays a key role in the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project, with the Igatpuri-Nashik-Sinnar investment region being a crucial part. The district is home to various industries like a Hindustan Aeronautics Limited aircraft manufacturing plant, currency note press, and India Security Press. Existing industrial areas in Nashik are Satpur, Ambad, Sinnar, Igatpuri, Dindori, and Vinchur, with proposed development areas being Additional Sinnar and Malegaon MIDC. Nashik hosts a range of large-scale industries such as Atlas Copco, Robert Bosch GmbH, CEAT Limited, Crompton Greaves, and many more. The district is also attracting Information Technology companies, with Tata Consultancy Services investing in Nashik and establishing Digital Impact Square (DISQ), a social innovation centre.

    Mumbai: Mumbai, India's financial hub and most populous city, has a population of 12.5 million. It is the center for entertainment, fashion, and commerce in the country. Mumbai has the largest urban economy in India, with a GDP of almost $ 4 trillion. In 2021, its nominal GDP is projected to reach $ 277.98 billion, with a GDP (PPP) estimated at $ 400 billion. The city's GDP (PPP) per capita is approximately $ 23,000. Mumbai is the wealthiest city in India and the 12th richest globally, with a net wealth of around $ 1 trillion. It has 46,000 millionaires and 92 billionaires. Mumbai's economic contribution accounts for over 6.16% of India's economy, including significant contributions to employment, tax collections, entertainment tax, customs duty collections, central excise tax collections, foreign trade, stock market assets and corporate taxes.

    Palghar: Palghar, a district in Maharashtra, India, has a primary and tertiary sector economy. The district's economy is driven by agriculture, animal husbandry, dairy, and fisheries in the rural areas. The mountainous regions of Palghar, such as Jawhar and Mokhada, mainly grow rice, millet, black gram, fruits, and vegetables. Palghar's proximity to Mumbai makes it a primary source of produce and grains for the Mumbai Metropolitan Area.

    Thane: Based on the 2001 Census data, the district had a total working population of 11,961,704 individuals, accounting for 47.37% of the district's total population. Among the working population, 51.75% were involved in agriculture and allied activities, 6.19% in manufacturing, service, and cottage industries, and the remaining 30.69% in various other activities. Additionally, the female working force constituted 22.89% of the total working force in the district.

    Dhule: Dhule is famous for its high-quality milk and ghee production, cultivable land, and groundnut output, making it a leader in agro-based industries and wind power generation. In Sakri Taluka, there is a large solar project near Chhadvel Korde village. Suzlon Company operates Asia's largest windmills project near Chhadvel Korde and Nijampur villages. Dondaicha in Shindkheda taluka is known for its lively chilly market and Starch factory. The district also has various cottage industries such as beedi rolling, pottery, brick making, handloom sari weaving, and oil extraction from groundnuts and sesame. Wood-cutting units are also present in Dhule, Shirpur, and Pimpalner.

4. Odisha (state)

o    Aska

o    Bolangir

o    Kandhamal

o    Sundargarh

o    Bargarh

    Aska: It is a municipality and town in the Ganjam district of Odisha and is known as the “sugar city”. In March 2019, Aska's margin data was 204,707.000 units, which is a decrease from 3,11,997.000 units in March 2014.

    Bolangir: The economy of this district in Odisha, India is primarily agrarian, with over 70% of the population dependent on agriculture. The district's main crops include paddy, till, mustard, and cotton. However, the district's economy is also affected by the tourism industry.

    Kandhamal: It is recognised as one of the most underdeveloped districts in the region, characterized by a significant portion of the populace residing below the poverty threshold. As per the Orissa Human Development Report 2004-06, a staggering 87% of Dalits (Scheduled Castes) and 92% of Adivasis (Scheduled Tribes) in Kandhamal are living below the poverty line. Merely 8.75% of individuals earn a monthly income exceeding Rs 9,000, while 70% of tribal households do not engage in any form of savings. The district's economy heavily relies on agriculture and related sectors like horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, and forestry. Noteworthy is the spice cultivation, particularly of ginger and turmeric. Additionally, the service industry, banking, real estate, and construction play vital roles in the economic landscape. Kandhamal is renowned for its diverse handicrafts, encompassing Dokra, Terra–Cotta, Cane, and Bamboo works. The district boasts a rich cultural heritage, picturesque landscapes, a salubrious climate, and well-maintained ghat roads that attract tourists.

    Sundargarh: Sundargarh in Odisha is known for its thriving industry, including the prominent Rourkela Steel Plant. The district also has other industries such as cement, sponge iron, ferro alloys, and power generation units. It has abundant reserves of iron ore, contributing to the mining industry in Odisha. Agriculture is significant, with major crops including paddy, maize, pulses, and oil seeds. Irrigation projects like the Mandira Dam and Rukura Dam support the sector. Sundargarh has a substantial forest cover, contributing to the economy through timber and other forest products. Livestock rearing is important for rural households. The industrial sector offers employment opportunities, and the per capita income surpasses the state average. The district is well-connected by road and rail, with Rourkela witnessing infrastructure development. Sundargarh has educational institutions, including the National Institute of Technology. Healthcare facilities are available, with Rourkela offering advanced medical facilities.

    Bargarh: Agriculture is the backbone of Bargarh's economy. The district is often referred to as the “Rice Bowl of Odisha” due to its extensive rice cultivation. Besides rice, major crops include pulses, cotton, and vegetables. The district benefits from the Hirakud Dam, which provides irrigation to a large part of the agricultural land, enhancing productivity. Bargarh is famous for its traditional handloom industry, especially the production of Sambalpuri sarees. The weavers' community plays a crucial role in the local economy. There are several small and medium-scale industries, including rice mills, dal mills, and agro-based industries. Traditional crafts and cottage industries also contribute to the local economy. Livestock farming, including cattle, goats, and poultry, is significant for the rural economy. Fisheries, particularly in areas around the Hirakud Reservoir, provide additional income sources.  A large portion of the population is employed in agriculture and allied activities. Handloom and cottage industries provide substantial employment, particularly in rural areas. Bargarh is well-connected by road and rail. The National Highway 6 (NH-6) passes through the district, facilitating trade and commerce. The district has educational institutions and healthcare facilities that cater to the local population. The per capita income of Bargarh is influenced by its agricultural productivity and handloom industry, which are the primary sources of revenue. The district has substantial water resources, with the Hirakud Dam being a key source for irrigation and fisheries.

5. Uttar Pradesh (state)

o    Amethi

o    Banda

o    Barabanki

o    Faizabad

o    Fatehpur

o    Gonda

o    Hamirpur

o    Jalaun

o    Jhansi

o    Kaiserganj

o    Kaushambi

o    Lucknow

o    Raebareli

o    Mohanlalganj

    Central Uttar Pradesh:

•    While Noida and Greater Noida, the prominent industrial hubs, are not voting in this round, the benefits of their industrial investments worth ₹1.23 lakh crore in recent years are reaching other parts of the state via the Yamuna Expressway, the Delhi-Meerut Expressway and the Agra-Lucknow Expressway. Central Uttar Pradesh is a key producer of wheat and rice, with the whole state contributing about 30% to the national output, with a significant portion from central UP. Uttar Pradesh is also the leading milk producer in India, contributing around 17% to the national milk production, with central UP being a significant contributor. The Agra-Lucknow Expressway, a 302 km long six-lane expressway, has significantly improved connectivity and reduced travel time, fostering economic growth in central UP. The Smart Cities Mission Lucknow for urban development projects, leading to infrastructural improvements and increased investments. Lucknow’s retail market, including Hazratganj and Aminabad, is vibrant and caters to a large population. Central UP hosts prestigious institutions like the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur and King George's Medical University in Lucknow, which contribute significantly to research and development.

6. West Bengal (state)

o    Arambag

o    Barrackpur

o    Hooghly

o    Howrah

o    Sreerampur

o    Uluberia

o    Bangaon

    Districts of southern West Bengal just north of Kolkata: Howrah is home to over 100 large and medium-scale industries and more than 10,000 small-scale industries, contributing significantly to the state’s industrial output. Hooghly is one of the largest producers of jute in India, with numerous jute mills contributing to the state's jute industry, which employs thousands of workers. The North 24 Parganas district has several industrial zones, including Kalyani and Barrackpore, contributing significantly to the industrial GDP of West Bengal. It is also a major producer of fish, contributing over 15% to the state's fish production. Agriculture is the backbone of the South 24 Parganas, with a significant production of rice and vegetables. The district also has growing aquaculture, contributing about 12% to the state's fish production.

7. Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

o    Baramulla

    Located in the northern part of Jammu and Kashmir, Baramulla has an economy primarily based on agriculture, horticulture, and tourism, with emerging industrial activities. The district contributes a substantial portion of the state's apple production. Jammu and Kashmir is the largest apple-producing state in India, accounting for around 75% of the total apple production, with Baramulla being one of the leading districts.

8. Ladakh (union territory)

o    Ladakh

    The primary agricultural products include barley, wheat, and peas. Ladakh also produces vegetables like potatoes, carrots, and spinach, adapted to its high-altitude climate. The apricot production in Ladakh, particularly in the Kargil district, is notable, with Ladakh producing about 15,000 metric tonnes annually. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Ladakh received over 300,000 tourists annually, including a significant number of foreign tourists. The Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) has planned large-scale solar power projects in Ladakh, aiming to generate around 7.5 GW of solar power. The completion of the Atal Tunnel has significantly improved connectivity, reducing travel time between Manali and Leh by about 4-5 hours.

Voter turnout in Phases 1, 2, 3 and 4:

•    1: 66.1%

•    2: 66.7%

•    3: 65.6%

•    4: 67.2% 

With the completion of the fourth phase of the Lok Sabha elections, 428 seats will have completed voting. The dates for the next rounds of the ongoing general polls are as follows:

•    5: 25 May 2024

•    6: 1 June 2024